Additive Manufacturing

The centre of excellence will reinforce the on-going efforts in the following specific themes of Additive Manufacturing in IIT Madras

  • Development of novel high performance materials for AM

  • Design for additive manufacturing

  • AM process innovation, including the development of hybrid processes

  • Efficient post processing and metrology of AM parts

  • Design and development of lattice structures, sandwich panels and metallic foams for automotive and aerospace applications

  • AM application development for futuristic mobility

Additive Manufacturing

Murugaiyan Amirthalingam

Principal Investigator


Murugaiyan Amirthalingam

Area of Interest

G. D. Janaki Ram

Area of Interest

G. D. Janaki Ram

Co-Principal investigator

Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
K. C. Hari Kumar

Area of Interest

K. Hariharan

Area of Interest

M. Kamaraj

Area of Interest

M. Kamaraj

Co-Principal investigator

Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
N. Arunachalam

Area of Interest

N. Arunachalam

Co-Principal investigator

Mechanical Engineering
R. Velmurugan

Area of Interest

R. Velmurugan

Co-Principal investigator

Aerospace Engineering


Scientific objectives

  • To develop CALPHAD methodologies for the rapid discovery and invention of novel high-performance materials for AM

  • To identify underlying fundamental scientific correlations between feedstock characteristics and additive processing parameters on microstructure and in-service performance of the components

  • To develop novel design methodologies for AM and demonstrate significant performance gains through innovative component design with improved life cycles

  • To develop critical understanding on the overlapping of additive and subtractive manufacturing methods

  • To optimise AM process parameters and develop procedures for achieving desired microstructures and residual stress states by developing a critical understanding of the thermal-mechanical-metallurgical phenomena involved in additive processing

  • To invent efficient, cost-effective and eco-friendly post-processing methodologies for AM parts by understanding the fundamental operational mechanisms of advanced machining and polishing techniques

  • To develop critical insights into metallurgical, mechanical and (bio-)corrosion characteristics of AM parts based on rigorous testing and characterisation.

Technological objectives

  • To induct new alloys and materials for commercial use in AM

  • To design and demonstrate prototype components with efficient designs for wide ranging engineering and healthcare applications

  • To develop efficient hybrid processes and novel post-processing methodologies for accelerated industrial adaptation of additive technologies and

  • Industrialisation of AM processes for (i) aerospace, (ii) automotive, (iii) tooling and (iv) biomedical applications

Domain 1 - AM of new materials


Development of high performance ferrous and non-ferrous alloys for additive manufacturing

K.C. Hari Kumar, R.S. Kottada,  Murugaiyan A, G.D. Janaki Ram

Prof. Leijun Li, University of Alberta


Additive manufacturing of Ni-base superalloy components for propulsion applications

Ravi Sankar K, Janaki Ram, Murugaiyan A and K.C. Hari Kumar 

1. Prof. Marcel M Hermans and Dr Vera Popovich, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.  

2. Prof. Thomas Kannengiesser Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung (BAM) Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany 


Additive manufacturing of powder-free preceramic molecular precursors for fabrication of complex ceramic components with unique functionalities

Ravi Kumar, G. D. Janaki Ram, Manas Mukherjee and Murugaiyan A


Prof. Paolo Colombo, University of Padova, Italy & Dept of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania state university, USA


Fabricating gradient intermetallics using additive manufacturing 


Murugaiyan A, R.S. Kottada, and G.D Janaki Ram

Prof. John Norrish and his team from University of Wollongong, Australia


Electrospraying of ceramic and metallic powders for additive manufacturing of medical implants.

T.S. Sampath Kumar

Prof. Seeram Ramakrishna, National University of Singapore.


Domain 2 – Component design and design enhancement for AM


Development of Lattice Structured Implants for Total Hip Replacement (THR)

G Saravana Kumar

Prof. Sundar Atre and his team from University of Louisville, USA


Design and Development of Auxetic Sandwich panels as Protective layers for aero and automotive structures through Additive Manufacturing Technology

R Velmurugan and R Jayaganthan

Prof. Dong Ruan, Swinburn University, Australia



Domain 3 – AM Process innovation


Optimization of Process Parameters for Powder Bed characteristics for Additive Manufacturing through Discrete Element Method


Ratna Kumar Annabattula

Dr.-Ing Yixiang Gan, University of Sydney



Optimisation of path planning for Laser Additive Patch Working on Advanced High Strength Steel Blanks

Murugaiyan A and K. Hariharan

Prof. Marcel M Hermans and Dr Vera Popovich, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.  



Understanding the role of droplet transfer behaviour and arc energies on microstructural anisotropy in wire arc additive manufacturing 

Murugaiyan A, S R Bakshi, K. Hariharan and S. Sankaran

1. Prof. John Norrish and his team from University of Wollongong, Australia

2. Prof. Marcel M Hermans and Dr Vera Popovich, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.


Domain 4 : Efficient post processing and metrology of AM parts


Post Processing and Surface Quality Assurance of Additive manufactured parts 

N. Arunachalam, K. Hariharan, S. Sathyan, A. Kavitha and Sundararajan N

Prof. Richard Leach, University of Nottingham, UK



Plasma Electrolytic Processing - A Surface Engineering Tool for Additively Manufactured Components

Lakshman N

Prof. Sundar Atre and his team from University of Louisville, USA


Domain 5 : AM application development (aero, automobile and tooling)


Additive manufacturing of prostheses and reconstructive implants

Murugaiyan A, Janaki Ram and Lakshman N

 Prof. Vidar Folke Hansen and Dr Mona W Minde, University of Stavanger, Norway.


Additive manufacturing of superalloy foams for high temperature applications

Manas Mukherjee, G.D. Janaki Ram, R.S. Kottada and Murugaiyan A

Prof. Dr. John Banhart and Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin


L-DED of cobalt-chrome alloy components

M. Kamaraj, S R Bakshi and R Gnanamoorthy

Dr Ramesh Raghavendra SEAM Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Republic of Ireland 



AM of pressure die casting tools with conformal cooling channels

Murugaiyan A and G.D. Janaki Ram

Prof. Marcel M Hermans and Dr Vera Popovich, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.


Expected deliverables of the research

  • New materials for additive manufacturing of automotive, aerospace, tooling and biomedical components,

  • Novel designs (including lattice structures) for custom-made, low cost and high performance components for futuristic mobility

  • Use of innovative hybrid approaches for marrying additive manufacturing with conventional manufacturing techniques,

  • Efficient post processing methodologies to finish AM components for high end engineering applications

  • Interdisciplinary approach to effectively utilise the benefits of AM for targeted application development: Use of first principles approach for alloy and feedstock development → design for AM → hybrid processing → novel post processing → in-service testing → end use application.

Current status

  • A new state-of-the-art laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing equipment is installed in the centre (Make iFusion SF1, Intech Additive India)
  • Build volume – 150 mm diameter and 180 mm height
  • Build chamber – Inert or nitrogen atmosphere
  • Location – CWS 404, Joining and Additive Manufacturing Lab, Dept. of MME, IIT Madras


International collaborations

World map, showing the location of the international collaborators where (1) University of Wollongong, Australia, (2) University of Louisville, USA, (3 and 4) Delft University of Technology and University of Twente, the Netherlands (5) University of Stavanger, Norway, (6) Swinburn University, Australia, (7) Waterford Institute of Technology, Republic of Ireland, (8, 9 & 10), Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany and Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin and Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany, (11) The Pennsylvania State University, (13) University of Padova, Italy, (14) University of Nottingham, UK, (15) University of Sydney, Australia (16) University of Alberta, Canada and (17) National University of Singapore.

  • Prof. John Norrish, Professor Emeritus, Director of Defence Materials Technology Centre and Advisor of Facility for Intelligent Fabrication, University of Wollongong, Australia.

  • Prof. Sundar V Atre, Endowed Chair of Manufacturing and Materials, Director, Additive Manufacturing Institute of Science and Technology, University of Louisville .

  • Prof. dr. ir. Marcel M Hermans, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

  • Dr Vera Popovich, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.

  • Dr Constantinous Goulas, University of Twente, The Netherlands.

  • Prof. Richard Leach, Professor of MetrologyManufacturing Metrology Team, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, UK

  • Prof. Thomas Kannengiesser, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung (BAM) and Head, Institute for Materials and Joining Technology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.

  • Prof. Dr. John Banhart, Head, Institute of Applied Materials, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin.

  • Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno, Deputy Head, Institute of Applied Materials, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin.

  • Prof. Ing. Paolo Colombo, University of Padova, Italy and The Pennsylvania state university.

  • Prof. Vidar Folke Hansen, Institutt for maskin, bygg og materialteknologi, University of Stavanger, Norway.

  • Dr Mona W Minde, Institutt for maskin, bygg og materialteknologi, University of Stavanger, Norway.

  • Prof. Leijun Li, Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Donadeo Innovation Centre for Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

  • Prof. Seeram Ramakrishna, Director, Center for Nanofiber and Nanotechnology Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore.

  • Dr Ramesh Raghavendra, SEAM Centre Director & Founder of 3DWIT, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Republic of Ireland.

  • Dr.-Ing Yixiang Gan, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Australia Prof. Dong Ruan, Swinburne University, Australia.

Industrial collaborators


Current activities

  • Workshop on Additive Manufacturing in July 2021, in collaboration with Indian Institute of Welding

Societal impact

The objectives of this centre is extended to create the following societal impacts;

  • Additive Manufacturing for sustainable development

  • Ensuring environmental sustainability

  • Affordable and timely health care

  • Additive manufacturing for war victims and veterans

  • Preservation of national heritage

  • Additive manufacturing for disaster management

  • Vocational skill development and livelihood enhancement

Sustenance statement

  • 20 % of total time of the centre equipment will be dedicated to commercial printing activities, amounting to a sum of 50 lakhs,

  • Income generated through self-financed M. Tech programme in Additive Manufacturing, amounting to a sum of 10 lakhs,

  • Income generated through regular skill development, certification and diploma programmes amounting to 10 lakhs,

  • It is forecasted that at least 50 % of all the engineering components and bioimplants may contain parts made using AM by 2040 [Frazier, 2014, Ross, 2014]. Therefore, a number of Indian and foreign industries are expected to show keen interest in adopting and commercialising the technologies developed through this centre. Similarly, most of the faculty members associated with the centre will have multiple international consulting opportunities in various domains of AM. A sizeable income (about 30 lakhs) can thus be generated through industrial consultancy and technology transfer, which can be used for sustaining the centre activities for a long period and

  • A consortium of user industries will be setup to carry out precompetitive research. The member industries will be expected to pay an annual fee (5-20 lakhs each). This pool of money will be utilised for acquiring new capital equipment for the centre as well as meeting the annual revenue expenditure.

Technical/ Scientific Progress

New work done in the project

Domain 1 Additive manufacturing of new materials
  1. Successfully developed new Co-Cr-Fe-Mo based alloys with reduced cobalt content to enhance biocompatibility and reduce toxicity for maxillofacial and dental reconstructive implants.
  2. New electrodes have been designed for Arc-wire Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing AW-DED of super bainitic (carbide-free bainitic) steels
  3. Printing parameters were developed to realise functionally graded IN718 components reinforced with Yttria Stabilised Zirconia particles.
  4. Parametric development was completed for nickel based super alloys such as IN625, IN718, IN939, Co-Cr alloys, aluminium alloys, maraging steels, TRIP steels, H13 and M2 tool steel compositions.
  5. Thermal stability evaluation of additively manufactured IN718 alloy components
Domain 2 Component design and design enhancement for AM
  1. Successful design of lattice structures for THR and cranial implants – qualification trials are being planned with an industrial partner
  2. High strain rate studies were carried out on auxetic structures made by additive manufacturing
  3. Successfully remodified heat treatment fixtures used for automotive components based on Design for additive manufacturing
  4. Design of cold forging dies with conformal cooling to manufacture automotive components
Domain 3 Additive manufacturing process innovation
  1. Implemented moving heat source model as user routine in Abaqus FE software
  2. Implemented element addition and phase transformation module in Abaqus FE software
  3. Sintering map development for process capability evaluation
  4. Attempts are being made to develop digital twin of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process
  5. Functionalisation of 3-D printed components for specific applications such as automotive and bioimplant
  6. Studied the packing fraction distribution in granular assemblies with respect to powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes
  7. Developed a model to account for vander Waals forces between the powder particles and studied their influence on the powder spreading process
  8. Successfully developed path planning strategies for feature additions using micro-plasma directed energy deposition. FE based models were developed to describe the micro-plasma heat source, predict thermal cycles and residual stresses.
  9. Successfully developed arc-wire directed energy deposition process parameters to print thin-walled titanium components using a novel gas metal arc solid wire electrodes.
Domain 4 Efficient post processing and metrology of additively manufacturing parts
  1. Plasma Electrolytic Processing set up is installed using additional funding from DST-HFC grant
  2. Initial experiments are being carried out to optimise the set up for processing of additively manufactured components.
  3. Developed a methodology for drilled hole quality evaluation – Laser and mechanical Processes
Domain 5 Additive Manufacturing application development
  1. Maxillofacial reconstructive implants have been successfully printed in collaboration with an industrial partner.
  2. Laser powder bed fusion process is successfully used to print warm forging punch with conformal cooling channels, heat exchanger with conformal flow lines, automotive end use components such as camber sleeve, plunger primary regulator and heat treatment fixtures.

Infrastructure developments

  1. Additive Manufacturing Research Group of pCoE Materials and Manufacturing of Futuristic Mobility has installed a new Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) based metal additive manufacturing (3D printing) equipment using IoE funding. This is one of the first “Make in India” equipment for metal 3D printing using L-PBF technology, with a build volume of 150 mm diameter and 180 mm height. We are happy to inform you that our director has inaugurated the facility on the 1st of October 2021. The equipment is available for printing major engineering alloy components, including stainless steel, carbon steels, nickel-based superalloys, aluminium alloys, titanium, Cobalt-Chrome etc. Our research group is also exploring various custom-designed alloy compositions for printing using this equipment. Equipment is installed in the Joining and Additive Manufacturing Lab (room. number CWS 404, opposite to staff canteen), dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. You are most welcome to visit the lab and explore the facility for your research and academic work. We have made a short video to show the capabilities of our work on additive manufacturing and this equipment.

    • You may see the video in this link.
    • Inauguration photos can be found in this link
  2. A new micro-plasma directed energy deposition additive manufacturing system has been developed in-house using the industrial consultancy project funding. This system is capable of printing large volume components (300 x 300 x 500 mm3).

  3. Netfabb additive manufacturing simulation suite has been installed

  4. BETA CAE simulation software package

  5. Two numbers of high performance computing workstations have been installed for mathematical modelling activities.

  6. Plasma Electrolytic Processing set up is installed using additional funding from DST-HFC grant


Conference organisation
  1. Scientific committee member – Dr Murugaiyan Amirthalingam, International congress on Welding, Additive Manufacturing and associated non-destructive testing. 8-9 June 2022.
  1. IIT Madras Additive Manufacturing Research Group – AMIST University of Louisville, USA virtual Additive Manufacturing Workshop July 28-29. A joint workshop was organized between AM Research Group of IITM and AMIST of UoL to introduce faculty members and researcher working on the either side and promote academic exchange. Workshop was conducted on 28th and 29th of July 2021 with an inauguration and four technical sessions.
Conference presentations
  1. Pradeep N, Prakash S, Saravana Kumar G and Murugaiyan Amirthalingam, A data-driven modelling of complex current-voltage waveform controlled gas metal arc based wire arc additive manufacturing processes, Annual Assembly of International Institute of Welding, Virtual mode, July 2021.
  2. Murugaiyan Amirthalingam, Engineering microstructural evolution during wire arc additive manufacturing, NMD-ATM 2021.
Webinars and presentations by AM group members
  1. Additive Manufacturing – Principles and Practices webinar for Ford Global Engineering Team, 28th of October 2021.
  2. Implementation of additive manufacturing in Industry 4.0, Additive Manufacturing – Principles and Practices webinar in NIT Jammu, 23rd August 2021.
  3. Metal Additive Manufacturing, webinar for IIW students chapters, 14th of May 2021.
  4. Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM), webinar for Faculty Development Programme, Deogiri Institute of Technology, Aurangabad, India.
Journal Papers
  1. Chandrasekaran, S., Hari, S., Amirthalingam, M. Functionally graded materials for marine risers by additive manufacturing for high-temperature applications: Experimental investigations (2022) Structures, 35, pp. 931-938.
  2. Choudhury, S.S., Marya, S.K., Amirthalingam, M. Improving arc stability during wire arc additive manufacturing of thin-walled titanium components, (2021) Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 66, pp. 53-69.
  3. Mookara, R.K., Seman, S., Jayaganthan, R., Amirthalingam, M., Influence of droplet transfer behaviour on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of wire arc additively manufactured Inconel (IN) 625 components (2021) Welding in the World, 65 (4), pp. 573-588.
  4. Nalajala, D., Mookara, R.K., Amirthalingam, M. Gas metal arc brazing behaviour of a galvanised advanced high strength steel in short circuiting and short circuiting with pulsing modes, (2021) Welding in the World, .
  5. Sundaram, S., Ram, G.D.J., Amirthalingam, M.Development of shielded metal arc welding electrodes to achieve carbide-free bainitic weld microstructures (2021) Welding in the World, 65 (1), pp. 1-11.
  6. Dwivedi, Mrinal, Alessia Teresa Silvestri, Stefania Franchitti, Hariharan Krishnaswamy, Arunachalam Narayanaperumal, and Antonello Astarita. “Friction welding: An effective joining process for hybrid additive manufacturing.” CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology 35 (2021): 460-473.
    1. Sujith Reddy Jaggannagari, Raghuram Karthik Desu, Jörg Reimann, Yixiang Gan, Marigrazia Moscardini and Ratna Kumar Annabattula DEM simulations of vibrated sphere packings in slender prismatic containers, Powder Technology, 393, 31-59 (2021).
  7. Logakannan, K.P., Ramachandran, V., Rengaswamy, J., Ruan, D. Stiffened star-shaped auxetic structure with tri-directional symmetry (2022) Composite Structures, 279.
  8. Verma, R., Kumar, P., Jayaganthan, R., Pathak, H. Extended finite element simulation on Tensile, fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behaviour of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy (2022) Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 117.
  9. Konda, N., Verma, R., Jayaganthan, R. Machine learning based predictions of fatigue crack growth rate of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V (2022) Metals, 12 (1).


Visits planned for PI, co-PIs, international collaborators and students (both inbound and outbound)

  1. Summer school for University of Wollongong students (B.Tech in Industry 4.0) in July-August 2022 in IIT Madras. Funding from Australian Government under “New Columbo Plan”
  2. Dr Murugaiyan Amirthalingam – visit to Ecole Centrale Nantes France, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, University of Stavanger, Norway. June 2022.
  3. Prof. Ravi Sankar Kottada - visit to Ecole Centrale Nantes France, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, University of Stavanger, Norway. June 2022.
  4. Mr. Kishoore Kumar (PhD Student) – visit to Ecole Centrale Nantes France. May-July 2022.
  5. Ms. Nivatha (MS student) – visit to University of Brandenburg, Germany, May – 2022.
  6. Mr. Sujith Reddy (PhD student) – visit to University of Sydney under international immersion programme.
  7. Mr. Jag Parvesh Daghia (PhD student) – visit to University of Stavanger, Norway, May to December 2022.
  8. Mr. Prakash S (PhD student) – visit to Delft University of Technology, September 2022.


Industrial Engagement

  1. Super Auto Forge – new Research Based Industrial Consultancy project on “Additive Manufacturing of warm forging tooling, fixtures and end-use automotive components” – Rs. 35,00,000
  2. Intech Additive Solutions, Bengaluru – Laser powder bed fusion parameter development for engineering alloys.
  3. Zoriox Innovation Labs – Additive manufacturing of maxillofacial and dental implants
  4. Fronius India – Welding and wire arc additive manufacturing process development
  5. Brakes India Ltd – Additive manufacturing for prototype development
  6. Established a collaboration with Altair India Privite Limited to work on granular mechanics with the commercial software EDEM focusing on sintering of particles. Altair has supported one MS and one PhD student salary through CSR grants.

University Engagement

  1. University of Wollongong (UoW) - IIT Madras Additive Manufacturing Research Group. Regular meetings were conducted between UoW and IITM AM group for collaboration activities on knowledge sharing and exchange programmes.
  2. Monthly joint meetings on “Alloy Development for prosthesis and maxillofacial reconstructive implants” between IIT Madras Additive Manufacturing Research Group, University of Stavanger, Norway and Nordic Institute for Dental Research, Norway.
  3. Regular joint collaboration research meetings with University of Brandenburg – Germany, Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK, Germay, Gefertec Germany.
  4. Regular joint collaboration research meetings with Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands and TU Munich.
  5. University of Nottinham engagement with Professor. Richard Leach on surface metrology for additive manufacturing
  6. ASME B46 Project Team member 53 Surface Finish for Additive Manufacturing - Team member
  7. Collaborative work with Prof. Yixiang Gan, The University of Sydney, Australia
  8. Collaborative research work with Swinburne University, Australia


Relevant Updates

Manpower trained in metal additive manufacturing
  1. Dr Jitendra Kumar Tiwary – IPDF
  2. Dr Rajeeve G.P – Post Doctoral Researcher under RBIC project
  3. Dr Basil Mathai – IPDF
  4. Mr. MOOKARA RAMA KISHORE (PhD student)
  5. Mr. PRAKASH S (PhD student)
  6. Ms. MITHRA S (PhD student)
  7. Ms. SOMA MAJI(PhD student)
  8. Mr. JAG PARVESH DAHIYA (PhD student)
  9. Mr. KISHOORE KUMAR S (PhD student)
  10. Ms. NIVATHA E (MS student)
  11. Mr. TOUSIF ANWER (PhD student)
  12. Mr. PRADEEP N (PhD student)
  14. Mr. SUMIT KATIYAR (PhD student)
  15. Mr. Sujith Reddy (PhD student)
  16. Ms. Rajnandini Das (PhD student)
  17. Mr. Selva Ganesan (PhD student)
  18. Mr. Mrinal Dwivedi (PhD. Scholar)
  19. Mr. Meshana Ahmed (MS Scholar)
  20. Mr. Aakash Madhukar (MS scholar)
  21. Mr. Krishna Prasath - Completed PhD
  22. Mr. Itkankhya Mahapatra ( PhD scholar)
  23. Mr. Sabari Rajan S (PhD Scholar)
  24. Mr. Ranjith Kumar I (PhD Scholar)
  25. Mr. Vivek Kumar Singh (PhD scholar, IIT Bombay)
  26. Mr. Jithu Anthoy (M. Tech student)
  27. Mr. Meher Teja (M. Tech student)
  28. Mr. Prajul Katoch (M. Tech student)
  29. Mr. Achuth C (M. Tech student)
  30. Mr. Tarun J (M. Tech student)
  31. Mr. Surya Kumar (Junior project technician)